Vanderbilt University
Institute of Imaging Science
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Center for Human Imaging

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Center for Small Animal Imaging

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4.7T Non-human primatesJohn Gore and Feng Wang (615-343-1840)

Radiochemistry Core

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Center for Computational Imaging

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VUIIS Conference Rooms

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Detailed Descriptions


3T Human (3Ta)Top
The Philips Intera Achieva 3T MRI scanners are state-of-the-art scanners with superior gradient performance (80 mT/m gradient strength, 200T/m/s slew-rate) and 16 independent digital receiver channels. The number and types of RF coils are constantly being expanded. Those currently available include: Spectroscopy: A full array of proton spectroscopy methods are available, including: STEAM, PRESS, 2D and 3D CSI, including SENSE acceleration. Multinuclear spectroscopy (primarily 13C and 31P) is also available: For more information on the scanners and ancillary equipment, please see: http://wiki.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/index.php/Human_Imaging (Vanderbilt access only).


3T Human (3Tb)Top
The Philips Intera Achieva 3T MRI scanners are state-of-the-art scanners with superior gradient performance (80 mT/m gradient strength, 200T/m/s slew-rate) and 16 independent digital receiver channels. The number and types of RF coils are constantly being expanded. Those currently available include: Spectroscopy: A full array of proton spectroscopy methods are available, including: STEAM, PRESS, 2D and 3D CSI, including SENSE acceleration. Multinuclear spectroscopy (primarily 13C and 31P) is also available: For more information on the scanners and ancillary equipment, please see: http://wiki.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/index.php/Human_Imaging (Vanderbilt access only).


7T HumanTop
The instrument is a 7 Tesla human magnetic resonance (MR) scanner from Philips Medical Systems. The scanner is designed to take advantage of increased SNR and spectral separations, while providing the flexibility to address the challenges of imaging at high field strengths.

Magnet

The magnet, manufactured by Magnex Scientific Ltd, has a 7 Tesla central field strength and <5 ppm peak-to-peak field variation over a 45 cm spherical volume. The bore size is 900 mm. It is equipped with 13 cryoshims (passive shims are used as needed to cancel higher order field errors). The helium boil-off rate is 0.2 l/h, with greater than 100 days hold time. The mass of the magnet when filled with helium is approximately 32 tonnes. The magnet is installed in a 400 tonne shielded room that isolates the exterior from the magnet's static field and the interior from environmental radio frequency noise.

Room temperature shims

Room temperature shims include second order (Z2, ZX, ZY, XY, X2-Y2) and third order (X3, Y3, Z3, Z2X, Z2Y, Z[X2-Y2], ZXY) coils. The Z2 shim is self-shielded and programmable to allow fast switching (for dynamic shimming applications).

Gradient system

The gradient coils are self-shielded, force balanced, and water cooled, with a 58 cm patient aperture. They support imaging in a 40 cm field of view (FOV) in the X and Y directions, and 35 cm FOV in the Z direction. Maximum gradient strength is 40 mT/m with a slew rate of 200 mT/m/ms.

Radio frequency (RF) transmitters

There are two fully independent transmit channels, each capable of delivering 4 kW to radio frequency coils. Both channels are broadband. The two channels are combinable for a total of 8 kW at 300 MHz.

RF receivers

The receiver currently has 16 independent proton channels, plus 4 supporting quadrature detection at 1H, 19F, 31P, 13C, and 23Na frequencies. The system can be upgraded to more channels as required.

RF Coils

Current radio frequency coils available or in production include a volume transmit/receive head coil, a volume transmit head coil, and 16 channel receive-only SENSE coil for 1H. A transmit/receive volume head coil for 13C-1H is under development. The manufacturer also provides an interface box that allows user-built coils to be used. In the near future, the following proton and carbon-13 coils will be provided in addition to our current coils: a T/R 14 cm surface coil: a T/R 8 cm surface coil: a 12 cm quadrature surface 13C-1H dual coil.

Patient handling

The scanner has a moving bed and an intercom system for communication between the investigators and study subjects.

Pulse sequence capabilities

The system has the same system software, pulse programming environment, and pulse sequences as current 3T Philips scanners, although not all sequences have been optimized for 7T. Our familiarity with the 3T and ability to transfer protocols between the platforms will be a major advantage in performing studies at 7T.


Near Infra-Red Optical Tomography (NIROT)Top
NIR uses a newly developed near infrared optical encephalography system (Hitachi ETG-4000). The ETG-4000 system employs laser diodes in the wavelength range of about 700-900nm. The system uses class 1M laser products in accordance with IEC (International Electochemical Commission) guideline IEC825. Class 1M laser products are considered safe based on current medical knowledge. This class includes all lasers or laser systems that cannot emit levels of optical radiation above the exposure limits for the eye under any exposure conditions inherent in the design of the laser product. The maximum exposure limit for the human eye during prolonged exposure is typically 0.4 microwatts. The laser light is coupled to the subject via optical fibers on a pad laid out in 3 possible matrixes; 3x5, 4x4 or 2 3x3. There is no danger associated with this system. Subjects can perform cognitive tasks in a normal environment and thus there are no risks with the experimental protocol. The ETG-4000 system currently has FDA approval.


Electrophysiology (EEG) LabTop
The Event Related Potential Laboratory (ERPL) is located in B164 adjacent to the 3T suite and is fully equipped with state of the art neurophysiology experimental research equipment. The goal of the ERPL is to afford researchers the ability to record electroencephalograms (EEGs) while simultaneously acquiring fMRI data. Currently, the ERPL utilizes the Compumedics Neuroscan Synamps2 amplifier in conjunction with either Neuroscan’s 64-channel QuickCap(non-MR compatible) or 64-channel MagLink Cap(MR compatible) to record EEGs for event related potential studies. In order to accommodate many head sizes, the ERPL has both small and medium sized QuickCaps and Maglink Caps. The ERPL utilizes two mobile Dell Optiplex Pentium IV PCs running Windows XP professional to run the data acquisition and stimulus presentation software packages. One of the PCs is solely dedicated to running Neuroscan’s Scan 4.3.3 software which is used for EEG data acquisition and analysis. The other PC is well equipped with a variety of stimulus presentation packages to allow maximum flexibility to the researchers. Some of the packages available include Neuroscan’s Stim and EPrime.


Experiment Room (MCN AA0111)Top
Experiment Room


Mock Scanner (MCN R-0106)Top
Mock Scanner


Recovery RoomTop
HIFU (patient recovery) room


Ancillary EquipmentTop
The 3T suite is fully equipped with a range of audio and video presentation equipment. For video presentation, an inside-the-scanner-room XGA resolution Avotec projector (which projects to a screen placed just behind the subject's head), Epson DLP projector (for projection onto a screen at the front of the scanner) or a pair of XGA-compatible LCD goggles for video stimulus presentation can be used, depending on the experimenter’s preference. Headphones for audio stimulus presentation and a microphone for subject feedback are also available, as well as an infrared eye tracker (built in to the LCD goggles). a Macintosh G4 computer, a Dell Pentium IV PC are available for stimuli generation. Software packages available for use include E-Prime, RSVP, Psyscope and Matlab (with the Psychological Presentation toolbox) . Two five-button keypads (one for each hand) interfaced to the computers can be used to collect subject responses if desired (Rowland Institute of Science, Boston, MA). Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) can also be measured.


4.7T AnimalTop
The 4.7T 31-cm bore Varian DirectDrive scanner is a fully broad-banded imaging/spectroscopy system equipped with actively shielded gradients (40 G/cm, rise times full amplitude of 130 μs), two independent transmit and one independent receive channels. Three transmit/receive quadrature imaging volume coils are available: 38 mm Litz coil (mouse), 63 mm birdcage coil(rat), and 160 mm birdcage coil (rabbit). System operation and animal prep support can be provided based on availability and need. The VUIIS provides computer access for data processing. The cost to use the system is $145/hr.


7.0T AnimalTop
The 7T 16-cm bore Varian DirectDrive scanner is a single frequency (1H) system designed primarily for MRI and 1H-MRS studies of small rodents. The system is equipped with actively shielded gradients of 27 G/cm, rise times full amplitude of 100 μs. Three transmit/receive quadrature imaging volume coils are available: 25 mm (mouse head), 38 mm (mouse body), 63 mm (rat) for imaging. System operation and animal prep support can be provided based on availability and need. The VUIIS provides computer access for data processing. The cost to use the system is $145/hr.


9.4T AnimalTop
The 9.4T 21-cm bore Varian DirectDrive scanner is a fully broad-banded imaging/spectroscopy system equipped with actively shielded gradients (40 G/cm, rise times full amplitude of 135 μs), two independent transmit, and four independent receive channels. Two transmit/receive quadrature imaging volume coils are available: 38 mm Litz coil (mouse), and 63 mm birdcage coil (rat). System operation and animal prep support can be provided based on availability and need. The VUIIS provides computer access for data processing. The cost to use the system is $145/hr.

Any publication of work performed on this system should acknowledge the NCRR instrument grant 1S10 RR17799.


4.7T Non-human primatesTop
A vertical 4.7T/60 cm. bore Varian scanner equipped with Magnex gradients and an array of coils as well as a special hydraulic chair is available for functional, structural and metabolic studies of awake, behaving non-human primates. The cost to use the system is $260/hr.


15.2T AnimalTop
The 15.2T Bruker Biospec Avance III, 11cm horizontal bore scanner is a fully broadband imaging system equipped with 6 cm inner diameter actively shielded gradients (up to 100 G/cm, 107 μs rise time to max amplitude), and independent 1H and X nuclei transmit and receive channels. Three quadrature imaging coils are currently available: 35 mm volume birdcage coil (mouse), 35 mm volume birdcage coil for mouse and rat brain from Doty Scientific, Inc (Columbia, SC), and a closed cycle helium cryoprobe (quadrature surface coil) for high-resolution in vivo mouse imaging. The cost to use the system is $145/hr.


High Resolution UltrasoundTop
The VisualSonics 770 High-Resolution Imaging System enables visualization, assessment, and measurement of anatomical structures and hemodynamic function in noninvasive imaging studies of small animals. B-mode (2D and 3D), power Doppler (2D and 3D), M-mode, and pulsed-Doppler imaging mode are available for anatomical, cardiac and flow analysis, respectively. Contrast enhanced tecnhiques are also available that allow for quantification of blood flow and for targeting VEGFR-2 cell surface receptors. The high frequency at which the 770 operates (20-55MHz) allows for achieving spatial resolution down to 30 microns; currently the highest spatial resolution available in real time imaging. System operation and animal preparation support can be provided based on availability and need. The cost to use the system is $64 per hour.


Scanco uCT 40Top
The Scanco uCT 40 is an X-ray CT scanner designed for ultrahigh-resolution scanning of ex vivo specimens. Its microfocal X-ray tube operates between 40 and 70 kVp, and the scanner can accommodate samples up to 35 mm diameter and 75 mm height. The system is equipped with dedicated software for image reconstruction, visualization, and analysis. The analysis software includes a full suite of tools for bone morphometry measurements. The cost to use the system is $29/hr.


Scanco uCT 50Top
The Scanco uCT 50 is an X-ray CT scanner designed for ultrahigh-resolution scanning of ex vivo tissue specimens and synthetic materials. The X-ray tube operates between 40 and 90 kVp, and the scanner can accommodate samples up to 50 mm diameter and can achieve an isotropic voxel size as small as 0.5 um. The system is equipped with dedicated software for image reconstruction, visualization, and volumetric and structural analyses. The cost to use the system is $29/hr of scan time. There are no additional charges for user-operated evaluation time.


Scanco vivaCT80Top
NEW in 2015 - The vivaCT80 is an X-ray CT scanner for in vivo imaging of small animals with a maximum diameter of 90 mm and isotropic image voxels as small as 5 um with a radiation dose low enough for repeated in vivo scans. This system is supported by the same analytical and visualization software as the Scanco specimen scanners. The cost to use the system is $80/hr.


IVIS Optical ImagingTop
Xenogen IVIS 200. The Xenogen IVIS 200 imaging system is designed specifically for in vivo bioluminescence studies and is outfitted with a cooled CCD camera, CryoTiger refrigeration unit, and special imaging chamber. The IVIS 200 is also capable of fluorescence imaging and is configured with filters for dyes such GFP/FITC (Ex. 445-490nm/Em. 515-575nm), DSRed (Ex. 500-550nm/Em. 575-650nm), Cy5.5 (Ex. 615-665nm/Em. 695-770nm), and Indocyanine green (710-760nm/810-875nm). Other filter combinations are possible. Up to 5 mice can be imaged simultaneously with the IVIS system. The current cost to use the system is $60 per hour.

CRI Maestro. The CRI Maestro optical imaging system is designed primarily for in vivo fluorescence imaging. The Maestro is capable of background discrimination (autofluorescence) using spectral un-mixing techniques. The cost to use the system is $47/hr


SPECTTop
The Bioscan NanoSPECT/CT system combines a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system with an x-ray CT. The SPECT system consists of four gamma cameras, each of which is outfitted with a nine-pinhole imaging aperture. Three different sets of pinhole apertures are available: one set for rat imaging (2.5 mm diameter pinholes), one set for high-sensitivity mouse imaging (1.4 mm diameter pinholes), and one set for high-resolution mouse imaging (1.0 mm diameter pinholes). The system is capable of acquiring dynamic images as well as dual-isotope imaging. All standard SPECT radionuclides can be accommodated (99mTc, 125I, 123I, 111In). The x-ray CT scanner and SPECT system are fully integrated and aligned such that co-registered CT images provide anatomical information to assist in interpretation and analysis of the SPECT images.

Several radiotracers are routinely available from the VUMC radiopharmacy, including 99mTc-sestamibi, 99mTc-pertechnetate, 99mTc-MDP, and 99mTc-MAG3.

System operation and animal prep support are provided. The cost to use the system is $130/hr. Any publication of work performed on this system should acknowledge the NCRR instrument grant 1S10 RR32784.

If you don't have access to the CORES system contact the CORES office and Jarrod M True


Faxitron XRAYTop
Faxitron XRAY. The cost to use the system is $50/hr.


Animal Prep/MonitoringTop
All animal studies must have prior IACUC approval. Animal ventilators, anesthesia machines, and physiological monitoring systems are available for all imaging systems in the CSAI. Users may be billed for additional anesthetics, gases and animal prep supplies.


RadiochemistryTop
Radiochemistry


F1200 SPECT labTop
F1200 SPECT lab


Computer Lab, MCN AA1115Top
Check the Computer Core Lab Wiki for specific instructions.


AA1119: Capacity: 32 seated classroom styleTop
1st floor classroom


AAA3109: Capacity: 6 peopleTop
3rd floor conference room


R0107: Capacity: 10 peopleTop
Basement floor conference room


View All Conference RoomsTop
All conference rooms


Visen FMT2500Top


CRI Maestro OpticalTop
CRI Maestro Optical


microPETTop
The Concorde Microsystems microPET Focus 220 is a positron emission tomography scanner with a 19 cm (transaxial) x 7.6 cm (axial) field of view. The system has an absolute sensitivity of 4% with a spatial resolution of ~1.3 mm at the center of the field of view. List-mode data acquisition along with scatter and attenuation correction capabilities allow for dynamic and quantitative imaging studies. Cardiac and respiratory gating options are available.

Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a tracer for studying glucose metabolism, is routinely available. Fallypride (for studies of the dopaminergic system), FLT (cellular proliferation), and FMISO (hypoxia) are available by arrangement with the radiochemistry group. 64Cu-ATSM, a hypoxia agent, can be obtained on an every other week basis via an arrangement with Isotrace Technologies. Contact Michael Nickels ( michael.l.nickels@Vanderbilt.Edu ) to discuss options for obtaining other PET radiotracers.

System operation and animal prep support are provided. The cost to use the system is $130/hr. Any publication of work performed on this system should acknowledge the NCRR instrument grant 1S10 RR17858.

If you don't have access to the CORES system contact the CORES office and Jarrod M True